"2000 years ago, the Romans, and later the Ottoman Turks, used an underfloor hypocaust which heated the air in each room to a level dependent on its distance from the furnace."

1. A Brief history of the Celts / Peter Berresford Ellis. Rev. pbk. ed. London : Robinson, 2003

2. The Pillars of Hercules, or, a narrative of travels in Spain and Morocco in 1848 / David Urquhart. London : Bentley, 1850

3. In a postscript to: The Turkish bath, with a view to its introduction in the British Dominions / David Urquhart. London : David Bryce, 1856. (Chapters from The Pillars of Hercules edited by Richard Barter)

4. 'For health and pleasure: the Turkish bath in Victorian Ireland' / Teresa Breathnach Victorian Literature and Culture (2004) p.165

5. Improvements in heating and ventilating buildings, and in apparatus connected therewith / Richard Barter. London : E & S, 1859. (Letters Patent: 1859, 22th January; no.208)

6. See, for example: 'The Turkish bath' / G F Bodington Lancet (26 Jan 1861);
'Liverpool Architectural Society' Building News (15 Feb 1861) pp.143-5;
'The Anglo-Roman or Turkish bath' / Francis Drake Builder (8 Jun 1861) p.388

7. 'Constructions of Turkish baths as a social reform for Victorian society; the case of the Jermyn Street Hammam' / Nebahat Avcioğlu In: The Hidden iceberg of architectural history. Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain, 1998 p.68

8. See, for example: 'The Turkish bath' / Thomas Garlike Lancet   (2 Mar 1861)  pp.225-6;
'The Hot-air bath' / B W Richardson British Medical Journal (2 Feb 1861) pp.114-5

9. 'David Urquhart and the role of travel literature in the introduction of Turkish baths to Victorian England' / Nebahat Avcioğlu In: Interpreting the orient: travellers in Egypt and the Near East / edited by Paul and Janet Starkey. New York : Ithaca Pr, 2001. p.70
10. 'Liverpool Architectural Society: lecture on Turkish baths' / W H Hay Builder (16 Feb 1861) p.106

11. Thomas Moore's popular book-length poem, published in 1817

12. 'Transactions of the committees: Wakefield' Free Press (27 May 1857) p.344

13. 'The Turkish bath' / R H Goolden Lancet (26 Jan 1861) pp.95-7 (Letter on proposed Turkish baths at St Thomas's Hospital, with author's letter to the hospital's Treasurer appended.)

14. Letter from Henry Butcher to David Urquhart, February 1866. Balliol Coll, Oxf: Urquhart Bequest Box 10:I G.23

15. 'Northern lectures, debates, and Turkish baths' / George Jacob Holyoake Reasoner (3 Oct 1858)

16. 'Death in a Turkish bath at Limerick' / Thomas Westropp Lancet (11 May 1861) p.472

17. 'For health and pleasure: the Turkish bath in Victorian Ireland' / Teresa Breathnach Victorian Literature and Culture (2004) p.163