Detail: exterior of the Roman Baths, Jesus Lane, Cambridge, 2004

Roman? Turkish? Middle class?

'Classical porticos'

and 'touches of eastern splendour':

the appearance of the Victorian Turkish bath

1: The Turkish bath as a procedure  
3: Roman bath or Turkish bath?   4: A working class movement

2. The Turkish bath as a facility

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But the Turkish bath is also a facility—the area, or building in which bathers took their Turkish baths. Later on, such establishments also included showers, perhaps a steam room, and sometimes a cold plunge pool.

Shower and plunge pool at Richmond Terrace, Blackburn
Richmond Terrace, Blackburn

However, these were all additional to the Turkish bath process, and not part of it. The Victorian Turkish bath itself was not a process during which bathers came into contact with steam.

Yet writers frequently persist in referring to Victorian Turkish baths as vapour baths, or equating them to steam baths or hammams. The differences between the Victorian Turkish bath, on the one hand, and the hot-air baths found in Turkey and the Islamic world, on the other, are important.

For if a minor mythology of the bath is not to gain credence as a result of seeing things which were mostly not there, or did not appear till much later, we need to understand why the first Victorian baths were built, and how they were seen by their promoters.

It is, of course, confusing that the English-speaking world sees such baths as Turkish baths, and that until recently French-speakers saw them as bains turcs.

Les bains turcs, Dunkerque, France
Les bains turcs in Dunkerque

More logically, perhaps, German-speakers, linking recent history with the more distant past, refer to them as Roman-Irish baths.

Women at Baden-Baden, Germany

This isn’t a reference, as one writer has maintained,1 to the old Irish sweat bath

Tullynahaia, Co.Leitrim
Tullynahaia, Co.Leitrim

(also to be found, incidentally, in American Indian cultures) but to the fact that the first Victorian Turkish bath was built in Co.Cork by the Irish physician, Dr Richard Barter, who, after some preliminary experiments, based it more closely on the Roman bath.

St Anne's Hydro where first Victorian Turkish bath was installed
St Ann’s Hill, near Blarney

Barter owned a hydropathic establishment at St Ann’s Hill, near Blarney. He had earlier found that the sweat needed to remove, or at least alleviate, the pain of such complaints as gout and rheumatism, was more easily attained in a vapour bath than in the uncomfortable wet-sheet packing of the cold water cure practised by the followers of Vincent Priessnitz.

The wet sheet pack   Vincent Priessnitz

Wet sheet packing


Vincent Priessnitz

In 1856 Barter read The Pillars of Hercules2  in which David Urquhart described the hot-air baths he patronised when First Secretary at the British embassy in Constantinople.

Dr Richard Barter of St Anne's, Blarney  

‘On reading… [about the Turkish bath in] Mr Urquhart's The Pillars of Hercules, I was electrified; and resolved, if possible, to add that institution to my Establishment.’

Dr Richard Barter

Title page of The Pillars of Hercules

The air in the hottest room was described as being dry, and Barter knew that the therapeutic effectiveness of hot air increased with its temperature, and that the body is able to withstand dry heat at greater temperatures than wet heat.

Barter contacted Urquhart, successfully inviting him to St Ann’s to help him build what Urquhart, and earlier travellers, had called a hammam, or ‘Turkish bath’.

Urquhart later admitted that he had originally written the chapters on the Turkish bath twenty years before The Pillars was published, and he had not originally realised how humid the air in the hammams had been.3  The Islamic adoption of hot-air baths from the eastern Roman empire, and their subsequent adaptation for ritual cleansing, led to the use of washing facilities within the hot rooms, inevitably giving rise to wet floors, humidity and general dampness.

  Hot room at Al Salsila, Damascus, Syria

But, originally for medical reasons, the ideal Victorian Turkish bath was one in which any showers, washing facilities, or pools were located apart from the hot rooms so that the air within them was kept as comfortably dry as possible.

Click for image of baths and readable plan of wet and dry areas

Yet so closely is our present vision of Turkish baths fixated on steam that the author of a recent paper4  can claim, after examining a handful of Irish establishments built between 1857 and 1863, that all Turkish baths in Ireland seemed to follow a similar plan.

Military Road Turkish Baths, Limerick

  Dublin: Upper Sackville St   Bray: Dargan Terrace
Limerick: Military Road   Dublin: Upper Sackville St   Bray: Quinsborough Rd

Three Turkish baths in the Ireland of the 1850s and ‘60s

This plan featured ‘a central chimney disguised as a tower’. Its purpose was to carry ‘excess steam away from the bathing chambers’.

Dublin: Lincoln Place

Dublin: Lincoln Place

Inside the building, the guiding decorative principle was the use of ‘surfaces that could withstand the high levels of steam required in the treatment of patients.’

So it is necessary to insist that any such chimneys, like those adjacent to other  buildings  such  as  swimming  pools  and  factories, were designed so

The Manchester Road Baths in Bradford   The Manchester Road Baths in Bradford were built in 1887. They had a large chimney even though it did not have a Turkish bath when it was built.

as to allow smoke and combustion gases produced in the furnace to escape at a height sufficient to minimise fire risk and, in this instance, to keep fumes as far as possible from the low-level intake of fresh air which, after heating, will be inhaled by the bathers.



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1: The Turkish bath as a procedure  
3: Roman bath or Turkish bath?   4: A working class movement